The big three spinal cord stimulator companies are:

  • Boston Scientific (formerly known as Advanced Bionics) entered the market in 2004 with the first 16 contact system, each with an independent current source.
  • Medtronic working with Avery Labs in 1972 commercialized the first spinal cord stimulator system.
  • St. Jude Medical (formerly known as ANS – Advanced Neuromodulation Systems) in 1986 released the first 8 contact system under the corporate name of Neuromed.

Several newer companies have entered the marketplace:

  • Nevro (formerly known as NBI Development) partly funded by Johnson and Johnson) is focusing on high frequency stimulation which is often sub-threshold and shows promising results out of Europe with ongoing US trials.
  • Spinal Modulation (partly funded by Medtronic and Johnson and Johnson) is focusing on dorsal root ganglion (DRG) stimulation.

Other companies focusing in non spinal cord neuromodulation include:

  • Autonomic Technologies has developed an almond-sized stimulator that is implanted in the skull at the sphenopalatine ganglion (SPG) nerve bundle for the treatment of migraine and cluster headaches.
  • Cyberonics pioneered the use of Vagal Nerve Stimulation for the treatment refractory epilepsy.  VNS therapy  has also been used in the treatment of chronic depression.
  • MicroTransponder is investigating the use of VNS paired with auditory tonal therapy to treat tinnitus and potentially strokes symptoms.
  • Neuros Medical focuses on high frequency, peripheral nerve stimulation to treat chronic limb pain.

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