The big three spinal cord stimulator companies are:
- Boston Scientific (formerly known as Advanced Bionics) entered the market in 2004 with the first 16 contact system, each with an independent current source.
- Medtronic working with Avery Labs in 1972 commercialized the first spinal cord stimulator system.
- St. Jude Medical (formerly known as ANS – Advanced Neuromodulation Systems) in 1986 released the first 8 contact system under the corporate name of Neuromed.
Several newer companies have entered the marketplace:
- Nevro (formerly known as NBI Development) partly funded by Johnson and Johnson) is focusing on high frequency stimulation which is often sub-threshold and shows promising results out of Europe with ongoing US trials.
- Spinal Modulation (partly funded by Medtronic and Johnson and Johnson) is focusing on dorsal root ganglion (DRG) stimulation.
Other companies focusing in non spinal cord neuromodulation include:
- Autonomic Technologies has developed an almond-sized stimulator that is implanted in the skull at the sphenopalatine ganglion (SPG) nerve bundle for the treatment of migraine and cluster headaches.
- Cyberonics pioneered the use of Vagal Nerve Stimulation for the treatment refractory epilepsy. VNS therapy has also been used in the treatment of chronic depression.
- MicroTransponder is investigating the use of VNS paired with auditory tonal therapy to treat tinnitus and potentially strokes symptoms.
- Neuros Medical focuses on high frequency, peripheral nerve stimulation to treat chronic limb pain.